Julius Schiller

Coelum Stellatum Christianum, Augusta Vindelicorum 1627

 

Julius Schiller

 

Coelum Stellatum Christianum

Coelum Stellatum Christianum Concavum

Augusta 1627

 

 

 

 

Testo per cortesia di

W. P. Watson Antiquarian Books

First edition, a unique copy with two extra suites of the star maps in counterproof, including one suite before the addition of the constellation figures. This magnificent atlas is a combination of two issues, together with an even rarer suite of counterproof maps in the second, finished state. Schiller's great Christianised star atlas was a part of the Counter-Reformation attempt to de-paganise the heavens and substitute Judeo-Christian imagery believed to be conducive to piety. For example, the twelve zodiacal signs became the twelve apostles.
Schiller's maps are distinguished by a good graduation of stellar magnitudes, three new stars, and several newly discovered nebulae. 'While some of these, seen through newly invented telescopes, have since proven to be ghosts, others proved true. The most interesting of these objects is the great nebula in Andromeda, now known as M31. This object, clearly visible to the naked eye, was not reported by Ptolemy, and it was apparently not noticed by any of the medieval or Renaissance astronomers whose work followed from his. Nor, surprisingly, was it noted by Tycho Brahe, even though he had observed a great many non-Ptolemaic stars ...
'In considering Schiller's atlas it is convenient to distinguish between the scientific content and the religious orientation. Viewed simply as a collection of celestial maps it was the best available until Hevelius published his atlas 60 years later. Schiller was not himself an astronomer, but a cartographer who used the observations of others. His atlas, essentially a revision of Bayer's Uranometria, was based on the latest - the most extensive and the most accurate - astronomical information. Among his authorities were Tycho Brahe, Franciscus Pissero's revision of Tycho's catalogue as published by Grienberger, Galileo's telescopic observations of the Pleiades, and Simon Marius' telescopic observations of the Andromeda nebula. Kepler, it must be remembered, had not yet issued the expanded version of Tycho's catalogue and it was not apparent that he would ever do so (in fact, the Tabulae Rudolphinae appeared in the same year, 1627).
'Schiller's atlas was the outcome of the ideas and work of several men, extending over a quarter of a century. The need for a new atlas, with revised star positions and constellations, was discussed by Bayer, Schiller, and Raymond Minderer, a doctor of medicine also at Augsburg. Bayer then undertook the astronomical revisions while Schiller, in correspondence with the Jesuits Johann Baptist Cysat, Paul Guldin, and Matthew Rader, converted the Greco-Roman constellations into Judeo-Christian ones. Wilhelm Schickard, the astronomer and professor of Oriental languages at Tübingen, supplied the Arabic letters and star and constellation names. Kaspar Schecks positioned the stars on the copper plates, Johann Mathias Kager drew the constellation figures, and Lucas Kilian engraved them. Finally Jacob Bartsch [Kepler's son-in-law] supplied various astronomical tables and, after Schiller's death, supervised publication' (Warner).
One issue of this atlas is known to contain only the counterproofs to the plates, before the addition of the Christian figures and with varying amounts of text, under the title Coelum stellatum Christianum concavum, i.e. depicting the stars as seen from the earth, rather than as projected onto a celestial globe. Copies with both suites of plates are rare: the Honeyman copy, for example, contained only the first suite. Our copy has the original maps printed directly from the copperplates, a suite thereof printed as counterproofs, and counterproofs 'avant l'image'; before the Christian and other figures had been added. The counterproof suite with the figures is unrecorded. The counterproof images show the stars as we see them (geocentric); the original impressions show the sky as imagined on a stellar globe (external). The geocentric series of maps 'were struck after the coordinates, stars, and star identifications had been engraved, but before the constellation figures had been added. The production of a counterproof map is a two-step process; after the paper print is made from the engraved copper plate, and while the ink is still wet, a second print is made from the first one. This second print, or counterproof, thus resembles the original metal plate, and both of these are mirror images of the first paper print' (Warner).
The two hemispheres, here each bound in thrice (once as counterproof 'avant l'image') were republished by Cellarius in 1660. In that printing they reached wider circulation, than did Schiller's first edition.



Vai alla tavola del Bartsch che collega i nomi cristiani delle costellazioni con quelli classici

 

 

I due emisferi del cielo cristiano di Schiller  come sono rappresentati dal Cellario in Atlas coelestis seu armonia macrocosmica del 1661

 

 

Consulta le pagine del Cellario a commento delle tavole relative al Cielo Cristiano

 

 

 

 

 

 Le due tavole originali di Schiller

 

Tabula I

 

Tabula II

 

 

 

Le altre tavole del Coelum Christianum Stellatum del 1627

seguite dalle relative tavole prive del disegno della costellazione  

come appaiono in 

Coelum Stellatum Christianum Concavum

 

 

Parte prima, le costellazioni settentrionali

 

Constellatio I                         Constellatio II                     Constellatio III 

 

   

 

Constellatio IV                       Constellatio Va                   Constellatio Vb

   

 

Constellatio VI                       Constellatio VII               Constellatio VIII  

      

 

Constellatio IX                       Constellatio X                 Constellatio XI

   

 

        Constellatio XII             Constellatio XIII cum XIV 

   

  

 

 Constellatio XV et XVI           Constellatio XVII et XVIII

 

  

 

Constellatio XIX                      Constellatio XX

  

  

 

                Constellatio XXI                  

  

 

 

Parte seconda, le costellazioni dell'eclittica

Constellatio XXII         Constellatio XXIII

 

 

 

Constellatio XXIV                    Constellatio XXV              Constellatio XXVI

 

   

 

Constellatio XXVII             Constellatio XXVIII          Constellatio XXIX

   

 

Constellatio XXX                Constellatio XXXI             Constellatio XXXII

   

 

             Constellatio XXXIII                    

    

 

Parte terza, le costellazioni meridionali

Constellatio XXXIV

          

      

 

Constellatio XXXV

Per cortesia di

Darrell G. Leeson

 

 

 

 

e retro relativo a 

Constellatio XXXVI

 

 

 

Constellatio XXXVI   Constellatio XXXVIIa et XXXVIIb Constellatio XXXVIII

   

 

Constellatio XXXIX                 Constellatio XL                     Constellatio XLI 

   

 

Constellatio XLII cum XLIII                 Constellatio XLIV

    

 

 

         Constellatio XLV                   Constellatio XLVI et XLVII 

            

 

 

Constellatio XLVIII               Constellatio XLIX                  Constellatio L

   

 

Constellatio LI et LII                 Constellatio LIII           Constellatio LIV et ultima

    

 

 

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di

Felice Stoppa